A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic module that has a pair of conductors and is separated by a dielectric or insulator. While a probable difference subsists across the conductors, an electronic field is present in the dielectric. This electronic field stores energy and creates a mechanical energy between the conductors. The result is greatest when there is a slender disjointing between large areas of the conductor. The conductor is also called plates. The capacitance is the single constant value of a capacitor, and it is measures by farads.
Farad is the electric charge on conductors to the potential difference between them. The dielectric between the plates bypasses a little quantity of leakage current. The conductors and the leads initiate an equivalent series resistance while the dielectric has an electric field strength limit that results in the voltage breakdown. Even in nature we could find the capacitor in the form of lighting. The series is like this the cloud is one plate, and the ground is another and the lighting releases the charge between these two plates.
The current pass through a part of an electric circuit is the rate of flow of the charge that has passed through the circuit. The current-voltage relation is made by exchanging current and voltage in the capacitor equation and the replaced current with inductance.
The part of the capacitor
A capacitor has two conductors, which are separated, by a non-conductive area. The non-conductive material is known as the dielectric medium. This can also denote a vacuum or a semiconductor depletion area, which is chemically equal to the conductors. It is assumed that a capacitor is self-contained and isolated, with no electric charge and no pressure from an external electric field. This why the conductor contains identical and converse charges on their facing surface and dielectric has an electric field. A capacitor may be compared to the battery but it is much simpler than a battery, because it can’t produce new electrons only stores them.
The energy storage method
The method of energy storing is to be done by an external influence by moving the charge between the conductors in a capacitor. If the external influence is removed the charge separation continues, and the energy would be stored in the electric field. If later the charge is permitted to return to the equilibrium or balance point, again the energy will be released.
A DC series circuit has a resistor, a capacitor, and a switch and constant source of DC voltage. The moment the capacitor reaches the equilibrium with the source voltage, the voltage crosses the resistor and the current throughout the whole circuit decay exponentially.
The AC series circuit also has a resistor, a capacitor, a switch and stable source of AC voltage. There are many theories that describe the AC circuit. Mainly, impedance decreases with increasing capacitance and increasing frequency that means if a higher-frequency signal or lower capacitor results in lower voltage amplitude per current, then AC short circuit will happen. Oppositely, for very low frequency the reactance will be high. So in AC analysis the capacitor is almost an open circuit.