The concept of Holography was invented by a Hungarian-British scientist and engineer Dennis Gabor in 1947. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physics for this work in 1971. Born in Budapest in a Jewish family his name by birth was Gunszberg Denes. After working in the Hungarian army during World War I, he studied in Universities in Budapest and Berlin and obtained a PhD for his work on Cathode ray tubes in 1927. Being a Jew he had to leave Germany in 1933 and was later invited to Britain where he invented holography.
Hologram is the product of holography technique. This technique enables recording of light rays that is scattered from an object. The light thus recorded can be reconstructed in such a way that it seems as though there is no change in the position of the object from when it was recorded. The image that is recorded is called the hologram and is three dimensional.
Invention of laser technology in 1960 gave a boost to holography in the sense that it provided a coherent light source which was necessary for further development of this technique. Security holograms are now widely used in currency notes, I.D. cards, passports, DVDs, books etc. to prevent forgery.