First of all, let us find out that what is a pinhole camera? In simple words we can say that pinhole camera is a small box or can, black in color from inside with the only opening i.e. a tiny hole in the center of the one flat surface of the can or a box. It works almost the same way as the other professional cameras.
Here is the way to make a pinhole camera:-
First of all, make a neat tiny hole in the center of the surface that is opposite to the removable flat surface of a box or a can. Try to make the hole as smooth and round as possible. Be sure that there is no other hole in the box, and it becomes completely dark inside whenever you cover that tiny hole. The hole acts as the lens of the camera. You can also use a piece of thick black paper or thin metal and make a pinhole. Then attach this paper or thin metal on the permanent flat surface of the box or can, which have a larger hole.
We always make a pinhole on the opposite side of the removable flat surface because it will become easier to place the film on the removable surface. Moreover, the film will give good results on a flat plane.
Paint the camera with black paint from inside to prevent any kind of reflection and let the paint dry. Make a shutter for the pinhole that covers the hole from outside whenever the camera is not in use. This shutter can be made of thick black paper. This shutter is hinged with the tape above the pinhole so that it can easily cover the hole when the camera is not in use.
Now you just have to load the photographic film or photo paper. Tape the piece of paper inside the box on the opposite side of pinhole. But this should be done in a complete dark room so that no light can hit the film. Check that whether the shutter is closed before going out in the light.
Place or point the camera in front of the object you want to capture as an image. Keep the shutter open for 30 seconds to 4 minutes. Paper requires exposure for about 2 minutes while 30 to 40 seconds for film in proper sunlight. The objects should be still for that particular time. After all this, take out the film or paper to develop. This should also be done in the complete dark room.
Pinhole camera helps you to know the basics of photography in a cheap and interesting way. Pinhole camera is different from the other commercial cameras because we cannot adjust the amount of light falling on the film.